Cooking

How did chocolate come about?

Later, the Maya Indians made the recipe more perfect. And all the same, hot chocolate in those days was strikingly different in taste from the usual to us: they drank a bitter drink and added hot red pepper to it. At that time, cocoa beans were extremely valuable: for a few pieces you could buy, for example, a rabbit or a bird.

Roasted cocoa beans
Photo: ru.wikipedia.org

Interestingly, it was not Christopher Columbus who brought cocoa beans to Europe, but his follower Cortez. Having occupied the land of the Aztecs in the early 16th century, he also became the owner of their cocoa plantations. The conquistador sent the chocolate to the Spanish royal court for testing, and there it was to the taste. The first thing the Spaniards did was add sugar to the drink and eliminate the pungency.

Chocolate cost fabulous money in those days, because the raw materials had to be not only transported from overseas, but also long and tediously processed by hand. Only very rich and respectable people could afford to drink this drink.

Jean-Etienne Lyotard,
Jean-Etienne Lyotard, Chocolate Girl, approx. 1743-45
Photo: ru.wikipedia.org

In addition to Spain, chocolate fell in love in England, and the French Infanta Maria Theresa, who later became Queen of Austria-Hungary, even introduced the position of chocolatier at the court.

They tried to simplify and optimize the production of a chocolate drink, and on this basis in the first half of the 19th century, slab chocolate was invented.

The Swiss can be considered the first producers of slab chocolate in the world: in 1819, François Louis Cayet invented the idea of ​​pressing chocolate chips. Later, in 1826, also Swiss Philip Suchard invented a mixture of powdered cocoa and sugar.

Historic building of the Cailler chocolate factory in Brock, near Gruyeres, Switzerland
Historic building of the Cailler chocolate factory in Brock, near Gruyeres, Switzerland
Photo: Depositphotos

The production of chocolate was brought to a new level by the factory of the Englishman Joseph Fry. Now the ball was ruled not by a hot chocolate drink, but by a hard sweet treat. After that, many more different factories appeared in all parts of Europe. For example, in 1870 milk chocolate appeared with the filing of the Nestlé company under the leadership of the German Henry Nestlé.

At the beginning of the 20th century, Suchard, who was also familiar to us above, founded the Milka brand – Milka. The name contains two main components of the delicacy – milk (Melch) and cocoaKaas).

The youngest type in the history of chocolate is white. It appeared only in 1930 (Nestlé company). The sweet dessert contains cocoa butter, grated cocoa and sugar.

Collage of the labels of the products of the confectionery factory (partnership)
Collage from the labels of the products of the confectionery factory (partnership) “Einem”
Photo: cont.ws

Chocolate appeared in Russia under Catherine II. However, only under Nicholas I, the production of sweets in our country improved. In 1850, German Theodor Ferdinand von Einem opened the first chocolate factory in the Russian Empire. Now it bears the name “Red October”.

How did chocolate come about?
Photo: otzovik.com

The homeland of the cocoa tree is Latin America, and amazing grains have not left the South American continent for thousands of years. However, pioneers from Europe quickly brought the recipe for a wonderful drink to the other end of the world and improved it.

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Source : shkolazhizni.ru

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