Hyperglycemia is when blood sugar levels rise above normal levels. In clinical practice, this syndrome is usually divided into degrees of severity:
- Mild hyperglycemia is an increase in blood sugar to 8.2 mmol / L.
- Average – up to 11.0 mmol / l.
- Severe – over 11.1 to 16.4 mmol / l.
- With a blood sugar content of 16.5 mmol / L, a serious condition called precoma develops.
- With a sugar level of 33.3 mmol / L and above, a hyperosmolar coma develops.
In patients with long-term hyperglycemia, these indicators may differ slightly.
Hyperglycemia can be suspected in some cases without laboratory tests. This condition is manifested by a complex of symptoms:
- a sharp change in weight;
- a feeling of dryness in the mouth, combined with constant intense thirst;
- itchy skin;
- visual disturbances;
- decreased immunity activity;
- worsening of healing of skin defects;
- excessive fatigue and weakness that have no external causes;
- palpable odor of acetone from the mouth.
The main risk factors for the development of hyperglycemia include:
- features of the diet;
- being overweight;
- decreased physical activity;
- viral infections.
Correction of the listed risk factors is a set of measures for the prevention of diabetes mellitus.
The conclusion about hypoglycemia is made when the blood sugar concentration falls below the minimum value of 3.3 mmol / l.
The reasons for this condition may be the following factors:
- insufficient or too late food intake;
- excessive physical activity;
- serious disease;
- abuse of alcoholic beverages;
- hormonal imbalance;
- excessive flow of insulin into the blood.
In diabetic patients, the most common cause is accidental overdose of insulin.
Decreased blood sugar manifests itself in a complex of symptoms affecting all internal organs.
- In the first place are: agitated behavior, sweating, heart rhythm disturbances.
- In severe cases, disorientation, impaired coordination develop, and focal neurological symptoms appear.
- The state of hypoglycemia is characterized by the phenomenon of amnesia.
Methods to prevent spikes in blood sugar
To prevent sudden changes in blood sugar concentration, it is necessary to avoid factors provoking such surges.
In particular, it is recommended:
- observe a regular diet;
- eat a balanced diet;
- avoid excessive consumption of coffee.
Since obesity is one of the triggers, correcting this condition will prevent fluctuations in sugar concentration. It is also recommended to exclude stress, since it has been proven to have an active effect on changes in blood glucose.
A jump in blood sugar can be triggered by unusually intense physical activity. Therefore, people who have already experienced instability in blood sugar levels are not advised to dramatically increase or decrease physical activity.
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