This study involves the determination of fasting plasma glucose levels. The study is carried out in the morning on an empty stomach.
- The normal value is below 100 mg per deciliter.
- Prediabetes is typically between 100 and 125 mg per deciliter.
- A value of 126 or more may indicate the presence of diabetes mellitus.
Quantitatively, such a test reflects the content in the blood of a protein combined with glucose (glycated). This test helps determine the effectiveness of diabetes treatment and adherence to a hypoglycemic diet.
This test is used in some cases to diagnose diabetes in the presence of convincing symptoms of the disease. Unlike other analyzes, which take a long time, this one is faster. Biological material can be submitted at any time without prior preparation.
Ogtt (for glucose tolerance)
This examination is done to detect prediabetes, gestational diabetes, and diabetes mellitus in all types of patients.
The name of the test has many synonyms. It is often referred to in the literature as a glucose load test, and in other sources as a glucose tolerance test. The result of the study is the so-called sugar curve, which reflects the dynamics of changes in the concentration of glucose in the blood after a meal.
A1c (glycated hemoglobin)
The concentration in the blood of the compound, which is a complex of hemoglobin and glucose, reflects the average blood sugar over the last three months. This analysis helps to establish how much blood sugar has fluctuated over the past period. It is used in monitoring or correcting treatment.
A blood glucose meter is a device for measuring blood sugar levels. In particular, portable blood glucose meters use methods to self-monitor this indicator at home. Such systematic monitoring, coupled with keeping a diary, helps to determine the effectiveness of the selected therapy and to make timely adjustments when necessary.
Cgm (continuous monitoring)
Systems exist to continuously monitor blood glucose levels. These systems use the intercellular fluid to determine the parameter values. The result is considered the most objective.
This study allows you to evaluate the work of internal organs, including the pancreas. The conclusion about its activity is made based on the concentration of glucose in the blood.
The sampling of biomaterial for blood biochemistry is done from the cubital vein. The research is carried out in the vast majority of clinical laboratories.
This substance is formed during the breakdown of proinsulin during the synthesis of the pancreatic hormone. Together with insulin, the C-peptide enters the bloodstream. By its level in the blood, the concentration of insulin is judged.
- In particular, abnormally low concentrations indicate inhibition of insulin synthesis by the pancreas.
- On the contrary, an excessively high concentration of the peptide indirectly indicates an active synthesis of insulin.
Preparatory measures before taking tests
Proper preparation for donating blood for sugar significantly increases the likelihood of obtaining a reliable result.
Experts point out the need to comply with the following rules:
- You do not need to starve beforehand; before taking the test, you should lead a normal life and refrain from eating only for 8-12 hours before the test.
- Exclude alcoholic beverages three days before the test.
- The best time for a blood sugar test is early morning, preferably before 8 am.
- If possible, stop using drugs that increase blood sugar levels a few days before the test. This rule applies only to those funds that are accepted temporarily. You should not stop taking drugs taken on a regular basis, as this may worsen the condition.
For patients undergoing systemic diabetes therapy, several measurements per week are usually sufficient. To assess fluctuations in glucose levels during the day, it is recommended to take measurements at different times of the day.