Pollinosis is an allergic disease that worsens during the flowering period of plants. It is also called summer catarrh and hay fever. Pollen becomes an allergen, it causes a strong reaction. The most common manifestations are conjunctivitis and rhinitis. To weaken the symptoms, antihistamines are prescribed, a diet for hay fever is also provided, it is necessary to stop possible cross reactions to other allergens.
The term hay fever does not mean a diagnosis, but a whole group of diseases. They were known back in the 19th century. It is believed that the English doctor John Bostock was the first to diagnose the disease. His compatriot Dr. David Blakely established a link between the ingress of pollen on the mucous membranes and the development of an allergic reaction, he proved his beliefs about hay fever to the medical community. Summer catarrh accompanies urticaria and bronchial asthma, can exacerbate these diseases and provoke life-threatening conditions, up to Quincke’s edema.
Causes and symptoms of hay fever and cross-allergy
The reason for the development lies in the malfunctioning of the immune system. He fixes the stimulus that got from the environment and begins to resist it. The particles of pollen of alder, birch, wormwood, ragweed and other flowering plants act as this irritant.
The most common symptoms are:
- rhinitis of allergic origin. It is observed in 95-98% of cases. It manifests itself in sneezing, itching in the nasopharynx, nasal flow, nasal congestion;
- conjunctivitis due to allergies. It is noted in 91-95% of patients. These are lacrimation, itching and burning in the eyes, redness;
- bronchial asthma triggered by pollen. It is fixed in 30-40% of cases. It is accompanied by shortness of breath, attacks of suffocation, heavy breathing, wheezing and whistling in the lungs.
At an increased risk of getting sick:
- immunocompromised patients;
- people with a genetic predisposition;
- living in poor environmental conditions;
- those who spend a lot of time on the street.
The disease is very likely to be inherited. If one of the parents encountered it, then with a probability of up to 80% the child will also face it. If only the mother or only the father is exposed, then the risk of inheriting the predisposition will be up to 40%. If there is an allergic person in the family, each blood relative should know how to deal with seasonal allergies, even if he has never personally encountered its manifestations.
It is really best to learn about ways to reduce symptoms in advance. The reaction develops almost instantly, when it occurs there will be no time to understand. As soon as the allergen enters the body, it begins to produce a lot of histamine. On average, its accumulation to the critical point occurs in half an hour, after which sneezing, runny nose or nasal congestion, tears, burning in the eyes, pain in the head, fever, severe weakness, drowsiness begin.
If you take an antihistamine in time, the symptoms will be arrested or prevented. In the absence of any action, the condition worsens. Puffiness of the mucous membrane, photophobia, a feeling as if sand were poured into the eyes are added to the symptom complex. With pollen bronchial asthma, wheezing and dry cough appear in the chest, it becomes difficult to breathe.
Cross-reactivity is common, with food allergy symptoms. All allergens are proteins in nature, some of which are similar in structure. The immune system perceives the protein as an allergen and begins to produce histamine. This is accompanied by malfunctions in digestion, rashes on the skin, the consequences can be more serious – anaphylactic shock and Quincke’s edema. To protect yourself, during an exacerbation of hay fever, it is necessary to exclude from the diet all foods with proteins similar to the allergen in the composition.
General dietary recommendations for hay fever
For any allergic disease, you must adhere to the prescribed diet. Thus, you can not only prevent an exacerbation, but also significantly improve your well-being. It is necessary to refuse products that contain active irritants. First of all, these are fish and seafood, as well as soybeans, peanuts, nuts, chicken eggs.
During periods of exacerbation, the diet should be as easy as possible for assimilation, without fatty, fried, spicy, pickled. Reduce the amount of gluten-containing grains such as wheat, barley and rye. The same goes for corn and oatmeal, even if they don’t cause allergic reactions. It is strictly forbidden to consume fast food, convenience foods, chocolate, coffee, carbonated and alcoholic drinks. Alcohol itself is very allergic and should not be consumed while taking antihistamines.
Specific diet therapy
In 90% of cases, hay fever is accompanied by cross-reactions to food and other substances not related to flowering. To select a suitable diet, you must contact an allergist. The doctor prescribes a certain diet after identifying the cause of hay fever. Most often, cereals, pollen of plants and weeds act as an irritant.
Allergy to cereals
Flowering of cereals in central Russia lasts from May to August, the peak incidence occurs in the first months of summer. To protect against cross-reactions for this period, you must abandon:
- citrus fruits, wild strawberries, strawberries;
- corn and legumes;
- honey and all beekeeping products.
It is also recommended to avoid all products made from wheat, oats, barley and rye. These are not only bakery products and pasta, but also any dishes that may contain flour, for example, cutlets, store sauces. The immune system can respond with a strong negative reaction to the consumption of cereals in any form, including kvass and beer.
Allergy to weeds and medicinal plants
They bloom from late summer to early autumn, but the increase in incidence occurs in July-October. Ambrosia, wormwood and quinoa are common causes of pollinosis. If you are allergic to them, you should refuse:
- parsley and dill;
- cinnamon, nutmeg and other spices;
- ginger in any form;
- sunflower seeds and everything that is prepared from them – halva, butter, mayonnaise and mustard in sunflower oil.
It is necessary to reduce the consumption of melons and watermelons. Also, a cross-irritant can be: cucumbers and tomatoes, citrus fruits, bananas, honey, chicory, carrots. It is important to pay attention not only to the diet, but also to the composition of cosmetics, they should not contain any medicinal herbs. If the identified allergen is quinoa, then spinach and beets should not be eaten.
Allergy to tree pollen
Flowering begins in April and lasts until the end of May. If you don’t:
- birch sap;
- apples, pears, peaches, plums, apricots, kiwi;
- all beekeeping products;
- greens, especially parsley, dill, cumin, celery.
Also, an aggravation can be provoked by cherries and cherries, with excessive consumption – olives and olives. Less commonly, the reaction manifests itself if you eat potatoes, cucumbers and tomatoes. Birch buds and leaves are often used in skin care cosmetics; the use of such products is strictly prohibited.
Diet for hay fever for children
It is more difficult to formulate a diet for a child than for an adult, since the refusal of certain foods can lead to developmental delay. Therefore, you should not make independent decisions, the diet should be made by a child allergist. With an exacerbation, doctors recommend giving up all dairy products, including cheeses and cottage cheese. Since this group is the main source of calcium for children, its deficiency must be compensated for through the use of legumes and green leafy vegetables.
Even outside the period of exacerbation, you should not give wheat products to children with hay fever. Alternatively, oats, buckwheat, brown rice are used. There should be many sources of carotenoids on the menu, these are carrots, bell peppers and pumpkin. A lot of carotene is also present in citrus, but they are strong allergens, in the absence of a negative reaction, they are allowed to be consumed in small quantities.
To prevent vitamin C deficiency, apples, black currants, papaya, mango, Chinese cabbage, broccoli should be present in the diet.
Any new product is introduced very gradually as it is a potential cause of cross-allergy. Drinking regimen is important, water not only cleanses the body of allergens, but also regulates mucus production if consumed sufficiently.
Meals during ASIT
Allergen-specific therapy is more effective than other types of conservative treatment. Every allergy sufferer sooner or later shows interest in this technique. It is characterized by a deep effect on the body, which allows you to achieve good results in the long term. Experts note that ASIT has a positive effect not only on well-being, but also on working capacity, as well as on the general prognosis for life.
The essence of the therapeutic effect is the controlled introduction of a certain amount of the allergen. Those stimuli are used that are determined by the main ones in the medical history. This is done to alter the response of the immune system. Treatment begins with the lowest dosages, then, with a favorable course, the concentration increases. Stabilization of all stages of the allergic response is considered a successful result, excessive sensitivity to histamine is replaced by a stable physiological state. Immunity seems to be re-familiarizing itself with the allergen so that it ceases to be a provoking factor and becomes something habitual.
Nutrition for ASIT is discussed with an allergist, the doctor may insist on avoiding all foods that cause cross-reactions, or allow their use. If prohibited, the duration of its action depends on the form of the drug used. If this is an injection, that is, prohibited foods are not allowed on the day they were given, in the case of drops, the ban remains throughout the course. If a negative reaction to a certain product manifested itself during the flowering period of the main irritant, then for the duration of therapy this product must be abandoned, even if the doctor did not speak about it.
Diet for hay fever during ASI therapy is selected individually in parallel with the appointment of immunotherapy. As a rule, the lists of allowed and prohibited do not change significantly. With a successful outcome of treatment, the prohibited list may become shorter, in some cases the restrictions are completely removed.
Source : fiteria.ru