Medical happiness is a feeling that is generated by the brain as a result of the interaction of many neurochemicals. Among the main ones are endorphins and dopamines. They are produced by the body during periods that the brain identifies as positive. Each hormone performs certain functions, and the lack of a substance affects well-being in its own way. Therefore, it is very important to understand what are the similarities and differences between endorphins and dopamine.
Endorphins were discovered in the 1970s when European scientists began to investigate the mechanisms of pain relief by the Chinese acupuncture system. Dopamine was first synthesized in 1910, but it was not until 1958 that the scientist A. Karlsson (Sweden) discovered that the hormone is the most important neurotransmitter in the brain.
What are dopamines?
Other names are dopamine, DA. It is a hormone, the production of which occurs as a result of positive emotions and joyful events. Being able to be rewarded can also be fun. That is, you have a fixation of pleasant emotions, which is an incentive to repeat actions that contribute to this effect.
The neurotransmitter belongs to catecholamines, affecting the brain. Synthesis takes place in the hypothalamus, the precursor is L-DOPA. Not only people are characterized by the presence of dopamine, but also representatives of the animal and plant world. The amount of the hormone increases the moment you receive any reward. As a rule, it is produced by the hypothalamus in response to the achievement of a certain goal, which was within the reasonable limits.
If this did not happen and the desired result was not obtained, the body may experience depletion of energy resources.
The performance of other functions necessary for the full functioning of the body is also characteristic. It prevents the entry of norepinephrine into the bloodstream, which leads to the release of sodium in the urinary tract and kidneys and significantly reduces gastrointestinal motility. The neurotransmitter reduces the amount of insulin produced by the pancreas.
If you have problems with the secretion of the hormone, then this contributes to the development of serious diseases, for example, Parkinson’s disease. A decrease or, conversely, an increase in the synthesis of a neurotransmitter leads to the development of schizophrenia.
What are endorphins?
Endogenous morphines are hormones, the production of which is carried out by the central and pituitary systems of both humans and representatives of the animal world. This neuropeptide is able to relieve severe physical pain due to its belonging to morphine-like substances. The main purpose is to suppress the transmission of nerve signals of pain sensations.
Endorphins are classified as follows:
The precursor to hormone production is proopiomelanocortin, transformed into beta-lipotropin, due to which there is a division into three forms of neuropeptides.
Endorphins have a strong effect on the central and peripheral nervous systems. However, in the former, the synthesis of hormones helps to block gamma-aminobutyric acid, increasing the excretion of dopamine.
Aromatherapy using lavender or vanilla can enhance the production.
What are the similarities between them?
- are responsible for getting positive emotions;
- increasing motivation, well-being and improving productivity;
- effects on the brain;
- hormonal effect on the body.
What is the difference between dopamine and endorphin?
The first belongs to the group of neurotransmitters, being the precursor for adrenaline. Endorphins are synthesized in the brain and central nervous system, thereby activating opioid receptors. Other differences include:
- Dopamine is a neurotransmitter of the catecholamine family. Endogenous morphines are neuropeptides belonging to the opioid group.
- Dopamine is synthesized by the hypothalamus in the brain, and endorphins are synthesized by the central nervous system and the pituitary gland.
- The precursor to the synthesis of dopamine is L-DOPA, and of endogenous morphines, proopiomelanocortin.
- The action of dopamine is directed exclusively to the brain, and endorphins to the nervous system – the central and peripheral.
- DA is associated with corresponding pulses and hTAAR1, which is amine-associated. Endogenous morphines are associated with µ-opioid receptors.
Endorphins and dopamines, despite the fact that they are hormones of joy, perform different functions from each other. The former are aimed at suppressing the transmission of pain signals throughout the body and affect the release of aldosterone, corticosterone, growth hormone synthesis, and the latter are intended to improve motivational behavior of a person.
Source : fiteria.ru